Typhoid fever represents a severe disease that is accompanied by fever brought about by the Salmonella typhi bacteria or sometimes Salmonella paratyphi, which leads to a less severe form of the disease. The bacteria get into water and food by a human carrier and then go to other places.
In the United States the number of the people suffering from typhoid fever has significantly lowered in the last twenty years. Nowadays, there are less than 500 cases that take place every year in the country. These are mostly related to those who have gone to endemic areas. To compare, in the 1920s there were 35,000 registered cases in the United States. Such an achievement comes as a result of better environmental sanitation. The U.S. citizens are most likely to contract typhoid fever in such countries as Mexico and countries of South America. India, Pakistan and Egypt also belong to a risk group. Every year typhoid more than 13 million people develop the disease all around the world. 500,000 out of this number die from typhoid fever.
Typhoid fever transmits in the course of ingestion of the bacteria with contaminated water or food. Those, who suffer from the disease, can contaminate the water supply via stool. Contamination of water supply leads to contamination of food. Around 3 to 5% of patients turn into carriers of the bacteria after the severe illness. In some cases, illness can be very mild and can go undiagnosed. In such a situation, a person can become long-term carriers. The bacteria can stay active for several weeks in water or dried sewage.
When you consume contaminated water or food supplies, the Salmonella bacteria gets to the small intestine and goes into the bloodstream for some time. White blood cells deliver the bacteria to the liver, spleen, bone marrow.
Among the typical symptoms are fever, bad appetite, headaches, aches and pains, lethargy and diarrhea. The incubation period will take you four to six weeks. Fever is usually is 103 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (39 to 40 degrees Celsius).
Many patients experience chest congestion, who have an abdominal pain and discomfort. If there are no complications, recovery can be felt in third and fourth week. However, about 10% of sufferers repeat their symptoms.
To cure typhoid fever you should be treated with the help of antibiotics that will kill the Salmonella bacteria. Before implementing medications, the rate of the fatality made up 20%.
Several antibiotics are used as effective means of fighting the disease. One of them is Chloramphenicol. It has been the most preferred option for many years.
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