Tularemia is a rare, horrible and even fatal disease. It can assault the skin, eyes and lungs. More than 200 cases of tularemia occur in the United States, especially in western and south-central states every year.
Such disease is also known as rabbit fever or deerfly fever. It occurs because of Francisella tularensis. One should say that it is practically the animal disease but in some cases it can spread to people due to some ways such as insect bites and direct contact with a contagious animal. The most important about the disease is to identify it at primary stages as it can be treated easily and even without antibiotics. But in more difficult cases such disease can be treated effectively with antibiotics known as streptomycin or gentamicin. Such antibiotics are usually used through injection directly into a muscle or vena. The therapy regimen depends on the type of tularemia, doctors may administer oral antibiotics.
Tularemia can be divided into several severity levels, i.e. a mild illness, stridulous sepsis ( a grave infection of the blood or other tissues) and instant death. If a person contacted with the bacteria, then within 2 - 5 day symptoms can occur but in some cases it can take up to 21 days to appear. Infectious people can have such symptoms as sudden fever, cold fit, headaches, alvine flux, ache in muscles, joint stiffness, short cough and weakness.
Progressive weakness can be the cause of a dry cough and pneumonia in most people. Tularemia concomitant pneumonia can be the reason of stethalgia, sanguinolent sputum and trouble breathing. There also other symptoms that can occur but it depends on how a person contacted with the bacteria, they are the following: a red spot on the skin that changes into ulcer, ulcer in the mouth, inflated and painful absorbent gland and eyes and sore throat.
In order to prevent insect bites it is recommended to use insecticide on your skin as well as on your clothes. Also it is necessary wash your hands with soap and warm water, cook your food fully and drink water that was taken form a safe source.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases conducts researches concerning diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catching disease that appeared due to microbes and also those that can be used as biological weapons. According to the research program, biodefense has short- and long-term studies that are conducted in order to design, develop, reckon and corroborate special tools such as diagnostics, therapies, and vaccines necessary to protect from bioterrorist-caused disease outbreaks.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases includes the following: it maintains basic research to find out mechanisms of tularensis virulence and pathogenesis and to detect host receptiveness to pathogenic agent. Also it finds and develops quick and inexpensive routes to diagnose tularemia. It works on developing antimicrobials and immunotherapies with the help of new mechanisms to cure tularemia and makes clinical trials of vaccine candidates.
One should remember if you do not want to catch tularemia it is better to follow recommendation in order to prevent yourself from the disease.