Tuberculosis is a pestiferous disease. As usual cold it invades through the air. Those people who suffer from the disease have infectious lungs. When contiguous people cough, sneeze, talk or cough up, they incite tuberculosis causative microorganism like bacilli into the air. A small number of such bacilli are enough to become contiguous.
If a person does not undergo medical treatment then with the active disease he will be able to infect about 15 people every year. But there are cases when people infected with tuberculosis bacilli may not be sick with the disease. The immune system partitions off the tuberculosis bacilli that is defended by a thick waxy coat that can let the disease to be inactive for years. If the immune system is hyposthenic, then the chances of being infectious are bigger.
There is no specific category of people who can be infected with the disease, as anyone can catch tuberculosis. But still there are people that are at higher risk, i.e. people that live with those who have the disease, needy and homeless people, and jail inmates.
It was estimated that one-third of world's population is contaminated with the tuberculosis bacillus. Approximately 5-10% of people become sick or contaminated with the tuberculosis bacillus during their life. Those people who have HIV and tuberculosis are more exposed to develop tuberculosis disease.
Tuberculosis infection usually appears in the upper area of the lungs. The immune system is able to interrupt the germ from continuing to generate. In other words the immune system can make the contagious lung dormant.
Usually, the symptoms of tuberculosis are the following: fatigue or feebleness, body weight loss, fever and night sweats. But the state of a person can worsen that can be accompanied with cough, stethalgia, spitting of stethocatharsis or a blood and shortness of breath. In case the contagious disease spreads out of the lungs, then the symptoms are reliant on the organs involved.
A lot of researches were made in order to discover the right medication to treat the disease. And finally anti-tuberculosis drugs were found. Drug-resistance tuberculosis can become the reason of inconsistent or incomplete treatment. Sometimes it happens so when patients do not want to take medication anymore as they feel much better, but in reality it very important to undergo a full course of treatment, as partial treatment is useless. Also there are cases when doctors assign the wrong drug to a patient. The most perilous form of drug-resistant tuberculosis is considered to be multidrug-resistan tuberculosis that appears because of tuberculosis bacilli resistant to some of anti-tuberculosis drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin.
Bacille Calmette Guerin is a vaccine that is used almost throughout the whole world. With the help of the vaccine, it is possible to defend against developing active tuberculosis especially if it concerns infants and children. Moreover, the vaccination is important in such countries where tuberculosis is considered to be the common disease. But still one should admit being vaccinated in childhood does not mean that a person will not suffer from tuberculosis.
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